Compiled with the help of Eva Bognar, Center for Media, Data and Society, Central European University.
The ruling Fidesz party has sought to tighten its control over the media in recent years, drawing criticism from media freedom organisations. Many of the news media are now controlled by local oligarchs, though there is varied and robust reporting online.
Government allies have strengthened their grip on the media market in recent years through distribution of state advertising, control over public service media, and smear campaigns against critical journalists. But independent journalism flourishes online, with social media like Facebook and YouTube also widely used for news.
Low trust has become a constant feature of the Hungarian media scene, while accusations of bias, distortion, and disinformation abound. The government often labels critical media outlets ‘fake-news’. Despite this, the public places most trust in well-established brands (HVG, RTL Klub, Index.hu), whereas pro-government brands (including the public service broadcaster, MTV) tend to be less trusted.