Compiled with the help of Vadim Makarenko, Journalist at Gazeta Wyborcza and former Reuters Institute Journalist Fellow.
Media in Poland have become deeply polarised in the last few years, with the ruling Law and Justice party offering direct or indirect support to pro-government media and targeting critical journalists, sometimes with law enforcement agencies.
Online and television remain the most important sources of news, with popular portals like Onet and WP a defining part of the Polish media landscape along with soaring social media use (66% use for news). The smartphone has overtaken the computer as a way of accessing news for the first time.
Trust in news has fallen by three percentage points this year but people have more trust in the brands they use themselves. Independent media tend to score higher in terms of trust than the public service broadcaster TVP which is often seen as acting in the interests of the ruling party.